Alternative Performance Measures

Additional financial measures that are not directly specified by financial reporting regulations. These are determined by means of a company-specific reconciliation and are based on mandatory (IFRS) measures.

Bertelsmann Value Added (BVA)

A performance indicator for assessing the profitability of operations and return on invested capital. BVA is calculated as the difference between net operating profit after tax (NOPAT) and the cost of capital. NOPAT is calculated on the basis of operating EBITDA. By deducting depreciation, amortization and impairment losses and adjusting for special items, and after modifications and less a flat 33 percent tax, NOPAT, which is used as the basis for calculating BVA, is determined. Cost of capital is the product of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC, where uniform WACC after taxes is 8 percent) and the level of capital invested (Group’s operating assets less noninterest- bearing operating liabilities).

Cash Flow

A company’s cash inflows and outflows during a specific period.

Contractual Trust Arrangement (CTA)

The concept of funding and insolvency protection of pension obligations by transferring of assets into a structure similar to a trust. Assets are classified as plan assets under IFRS and netted against the company’s pension obligations.

Corporate Governance

The term for responsible corporate management and control in the interest of creating sustainable value.

Coverage Ratio

The (interest) coverage ratio is a financing target. It represents the ratio of operating EBITDA to financial result. Amounts reported in the Annual Financial Statements are modified in calculating the coverage ratio.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a strategic approach that establishes, maintains and reinforces companies’ customer relationships using state-of-the-art information and communication technologies.

Equity Method

The equity method is a method of accounting to recognize associates and joint ventures whereby the investment is initially recognized at cost and adjusted thereafter for the postacquisition change in the investor’s share of the investee’s net assets.


Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from those assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized.


Abbreviation of International Financial Reporting Standards. Accounting standards intended to ensure internationally comparable accounting and reporting.


Write-down of intangible assets and property, plant and equipment.

Leverage Factor

The leverage factor is the ratio of economic debt to operating EBITDA. In calculating the leverage factor, modifications are made to the balance sheet figures to better reflect the Group’s actual financial strength from an economic viewpoint.

Operating EBITDA

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization and special items.


An expression of the creditworthiness of a creditor or financial instrument by an agency specialized in evaluating credit risk.

SE & Co. KGaA

A partnership limited by shares (KGaA) with a European stock corporation (Societas Europaea, or SE) as the personally liable partner. The personally liable partner is responsible for the management and representation of the KGaA.

Special Items

Income and expense items that are distinguished by their nature, amount or frequency of occurrence, and the disclosure of which is relevant for assessing the earnings power of the company or its segments in the period affected. They include, for example, restructuring measures, impairments and capital gains or losses.

Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is a strategic approach that uses integrated logistics chains to establish, implement and optimize the organization of all logistics processes from companies to end customers.

Syndicated Credit Facility

A credit facility involving a consortium of banks.